A. PLANNING DEFINITION HUMAN RESOURCES
Human resources are integrated capabilities of the intellect and physical resources owned by individuals, and its behavior is determined by heredity and environment, while the achievements of his work is motivated by a desire to meet his satisfaction.
Andrew E. Sikula (1981; 145) argued that:
"Planning human resources or manpower planning is defined as the process of determining manpower requirements and means to reconcile the need for implementation to interact with the organization's plan".
George Milkovich and Paul C. Nystrom (Dale Yoder, 1981:173) defines that:
"Planning is the process of labor forecasting, developing, implementing and controlling a company that guarantees the suitability of staff, staffing properly, the right time, which automatically more useful".
Human Resource Planning is a process of analysis and identification of the need for the availability of human resources so the organization can achieve its objectives.
1. Interests Human Resource Planning
There are three interests in the planning of human resources, namely:
Interests of the Organization.
2. Components Human Resource Planning
There are several components that need to be considered in planning Mausia Resources, namely:
Human Resource Planning must have a goal based on individual interests, organizational and national interests. Resource planning goal is to connect Human Resources Mausia available to the company's needs in the future to avoid mismanagement and overlapping in the implementation of tasks.
Planning Organization is the activity by the company to make positive changes for the development of the organization. Resource forecasting Mausia drastically influenced by the level of production. Production levels of providers (suppliers) and may also affect competitors. Predicting Human Resources, should take into account changes in technology, demand and supply conditions, and career planning.
In conclusion, PSDM provides future guidance, to determine which labor obtained, when labor is needed, and training and development of what kind of labor should possess. Through succession planning, career employment can be tailored to individual needs that are consistent with the needs of an organization.
Terms - Resource planning requirements Mausia
Should know clearly that the problem will be planned.
Must be able to collect and analyze information about resources human.
Must have experience of job analysis, organization and resource supply situation human.
Must be able to read situations Resources Human present and future.
Able to estimate the increase in resources and technology Mausia future.
Aware of widespread labor regulations and government policies.
3. Resource planning process Human
Human Resources Strategy is a tool used to help the organization to anticipate and manage the supply and demand resources human. Mausia Resource Strategy provides overall direction on how Human Resources activities will be developed and managed.
Development Resources Human plan is a long-term plan. For example, in planning Resources Human an organization must consider the allocation of people on long-term task for not only six months or just for the next year. This allocation requires knowledge to be able to predict the possibility of what will happen later as expansion, reduction of operation, and technological changes that could affect the organization.
Resource planning procedures Human
Define clearly the quality and quantity of resources required Mausia.
Collecting data and information about resources human.
Classify data and information and analyze it.
Establish some alternative.
Choosing the best of the existing alternative plan.
Inform plans for employees to be realized.
PSDM method, known for nonilmiah methods and the scientific method. This method means that planning nonilmiah Resources Human only based on experience, imagination, and estimates of perencanaanya course. Human Resources Plan for this kind of risk is great enough, such as the quality and quantity of labor is not in accordance with company requirements. That places mismanagement and waste that hurt the company.
The scientific method means that PSDM is based on the results of analysis of data, information, and forecasting (forecasting) of the planners. Such human resource plan relative risk is small because everything has been calculated beforehand.
4. Evaluating Human Resources Plan
If the Human Resources planning done well, will get the benefits as follows:
Top management has a better view of the dimensions of human resources or business decisions.
Human Resources costs become smaller because management can anticipate imbalance before it occurs the things previously imagined greater cost.
The availability of more time to put that talent because of the need can be anticipated and known before the amount of actual labor required.
The existence of a better opportunity to involve women and minorities within the plan period to come.
Development managers can be better.
1. Standard Human Resources capabilities
Standard Human Resources capabilities that would not exist, as a result of information Human Resources capabilities based solely on the predictions (predictions) are subjective in nature. This is a serious obstacle in the PSDM to calculate the potential human resources for sure.
2. Human (Human Resources) creature Hidup
Human beings as living things can not be completely controlled like a machine. This is an obstacle PSDM, because it was difficult to take into account everything in the plan. For example, he was able but less willing to let go of his ability.
3. Human Resource Situation
Inventory, quality, and distribution of the population are less supportive of the needs of corporate Human Resources. This is a constraint PSDM process is good and right.
4. Wisdom Labor Government
Wisdom of the government labor, such as compensation, gender, foreigners, and other constraints in PSDM to make a good plan and appropriate.
Forecasting (forecasting) using past information and current conditions to identify the expected future. Projections for the future of course there are elements of inaccuracy. Basanya experienced people able to predict accurately enough to benefit the organization in the long-term plan.
Approaches to predict the Human Resources can be started from the best estimate of the managers arrive at a complex computer simulation. Simple assumption may be sufficient for a certain distance, but the distance will be needed to elaborate the other.
Human Resources Forecasting should be done through three stages: short-term planning, medium and long.
Forecasting the Human Resource needs (demand)
The main emphasis of the forecast of Human Resources is currently forecasting human resource needs of the organization or will demand for Human Resources. Demand prediction can be a subjective assessment, or mathematical.
Demand forecasting methods, namely:
1. Assessment methods consist of:
a. Estimation can be top down or bottom up, but basically interested are asked "How many people will you need next year?"
b. Rules of thumb entrusted general guidelines applicable to specific situations within the organization. Example; guidelines of "one of five operations managers reporting Supervisors' help and predict the number of supervisors needed in a division. However, it is important to adjust the guidelines to determine the needs of departments vary widely.
Delphi technique uses input from expert groups. Expert opinion sought by using a separate questionnaire in predictable situations. Expert opinion and then combined and returned to the experts for an opinion without a second name. This process lasted several experts akana to experts generally asetuju on one assessment. For example, this approach has been used to influence technology meramalakan in Human Resource Management and staff recruitment needs.
Nominal group technique, unlike Delphi, need experts to meet directly. Ideas they usually occur freely at first, discussed as a group and then arranged senagai report.
2. Mathematical methods, consisting of:
a. Statistical regression analysis to make statistical comparisons of past relationships between various factors. For example, a statistical relationship between gross sales and number of employees in the retail chain may be useful in predicting a number of employees that will be needed if the retail sales increased 30%.
b. Simulation is the description Meode real situation in the abstract as an example, econometric models to predict growth in the use of the software will direct the forecasting software development needs.
c. Productivity ratio calculates the average number of units produced perkaryawan. This average was applied to forecast sales to determine the number of employees needed, for example, a company can predict the number of sales rep to use this ratio.
d. The ratio of the amount of labor needed can be used to predict the indirect labor. For example, if the company normally uses one clerical person for 25 production workers, the ratio can be used to help estimate for clerical workers.
C. AVAILABILITY ESTIMATES / SDM SUPPLY INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL
If the existing HR demand projections will be the future, the next problem was how to fill those needs.
There are two sources of supply Mausia Resources: internal and external. Inventories / internal supply can come from existing employees who can be promoted, transferred, or didemosi to fill the vacancy. External supply comes from outside or those who are not working in the organization and ready to be recruited by the organization.
1. INTERNAL ASSESSMENT OF LABOR ORGANIZATION
Part of the human resource planning is to analyze the work that needs to be done and the expertise present in person to perform a task. Needs of the organization should be compared with the provision of the existing workforce.
Not just count the number of employees. Must be audited labor existing workers to know the existing capabilities.
This information became the basis of the tentative estimate of job-vacancies can be filled by existing employees.
This tentative assignment is usually recorded in the 'Replacement Chart'. This chart is a visual representation concerning WHO WHO will replace in the event of turnover. However, due to the limited information it is necessary also equipped with "Replacement Summaries".
Considering employees for the vacancies existing in the future is important if the employee is projected to have a long career.
Replacement Chart audit and also important for HRD. With the knowledge of the employees more, HRD can plan Recruiting, training, and career planning more effectively.
Knowledge HRD also can help to meet the AAP to identify minority candidates for internal job-specific job.
Here are the questions given during the internal assessment:
1. What work there at the moment?
2. How many people do each task?
3. What is the relationship between reporting these tasks?
4. What is the importance of each task?
5. Which jobs require the application of organizational strategy?
6. What are the characteristics of the work that is expected?
The methods used to estimate / assess the supply of internal Mausia Resources are:
1.1. Jobs and Auditing Expertise
Early stage to evaluate the strengths and weaknesses within a company is to audit the work being done at this organization. This internal assessment to help put in place an organization to develop or establish a competitive advantage. A comprehensive analysis of all current job provides the basis to determine what action should be done in the future.
Mausia Resources Audit is a follow-up of the realization of plans that have been made.
The interests of the company's audit
To determine employee performance.
To determine the amount of compensation the employee.
To find the creativity and employee behavior.
To determine whether the employee should be transferred (vertical-horizontal) and / or dismissed.
To determine whether the employee can work together with other employees.
Interests of the audit for Mausia Resources
To satisfy human ego always wants attention and get the value / praise of his work.
Employees want to work mangetahui whether performance is better than the other employees.
For the purpose of service and promotion.
Familiarizing employees relationship with boss
Resources audit objectives Mausia
To determine whether the implementation and employee performance in accordance with a predetermined plan.
To determine whether all employees can complete description of his job well and on time.
As a guideline to determine the remuneration amount to each employee.
As a basis for consideration and giving praise or punishment to every employee.
Implementation considerations as the basis of mutations vertical (promotion or demosi), horizontal, and / or over the job for employees.
To motivate increased morale, work performance, and kedisiplian employees.
1.2. Organization Capabilities Inventory
Primary sources of employment data is the data on the Human Resources organization. Planners can use this inventory to determine the long-term needs for recruitment, selection and development of human resources. Also the information can be the basis for determining the additional capacity required future workforce may not be necessary at this time
Organization Capabilities Inventory component often consists of:
a. Demographics of individual workers (age, tenure in the organization, the work on the current type of task).
Individual career advancement underwriter duties, time required for each type of job, promotion or other job perbahan to the wage rate).
Individual performance data (penyerlesaian work, the development of expertise)
All three can be extended above information include:
Education and training
Mobility and the desired geographical
Talent, ability and desire specific
Areas of interest and the level of promotion within the company
Level of ability to campaign
The information has been obtained from the human resources audit and inventory of organizational capabilities on Human Resources and then converted into:
• Information Systems Human Resources (Human Resources SISumber)
SISDM integration system designed to provide information necessary for decision making of Human Resources.
1. Destination SISDM
Increasing the efficiency of labor in which the data collected HR
More strategic and planning related to Human Resources.
2. Uses SISDM
SISDM has many uses within an organization. The most basic is the automation of the payment of wages and benefits kegaiatan. With SISDM, labor time recording system incorporated into, and modified adjusted in each individual. Other public uses of the equal opportunity SISDM work.
To design an effective SISDM, experts recommend to judge with questions about the data will be needed such as:
1. What information is available, and what information is needed about the people in the organization?
2. For what purpose such information will be provided?
3. In what format should the output adjustment data for other companies?
4. Who needs the information
5. When and how often the information is needed?
• Planning Succesion
HR is a process operating managers and planners use to convert information about employees who have now into the decisions regarding "internal job placements" will be the future.
2. EXTERNAL ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS
Environmental analysis is a process of environmental research organizations to determine the opportunities or threats. The results of the analysis will affect the Human Resources plan for each organization will go to the labor market that supplies the same time, other companies also.
Several factors can affect the supply of labor, among others:
Problems of population and competition
workforce composition and employment patterns
D. CAUSE-CAUSE DEMAND Human Resources
1. Internal factors as the demand for human resources
The internal factor is the condition of preparation and readiness of a Human Resources organization in conducting business operations in the present and to anticipate future developments. In other words, the internal factor is the reason for the request of Human Resources, which derives from a lack of human resources within the organization who conducted the business, which led to the addition of required human resources. These reasons include:
Factors Strategic Plan and operational plans
Predictive factors of products and sales
Financial factors (cost) Human Resources
Factors opening a new business (business development)
Organization design factors and Design Work
Openness and participation factors managers
2. External factors as the demand for Human Resources
External factors are environmental conditions that are outside the business over the company that affect its strategic plan and operational plans, so that direct or indirect impact on human resources planning. These external factors can be categorized basically as a cause or reason for the request of Human Resources environment of an organization / company. Cause or reason consists of:
Factors National and International Economy (Global)
Social factors, Politics and Law
Labor market factors and competition
3. Employment Factors
This factor is a condition of employment (Human Resources) owned company and predicted future impact on demand for new labor. These conditions can be ascertained from HR audit and HR Information System (SISDM) as part of the Management Information System (MIS) an organization / company. Some of these factors are:
a. The amount, time and human resources qualifications retirement, which should be included in the prediction of human resources needs of the job / position vacant to be sought instead.
Prediction number and qualification of human resources who will stop / exit and termination in accordance with the Joint Working Agreement (PPP) or the employment contract, which predicted harud replacement candidate to fill the void at the right time, both internal and external sources.
At the end of all the above explanations can we draw the conclusion that PSDM is very important to do because it allows HR staff the right place at the right time.